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References and Further Reading

Further Reading

Defining Moments Vietnam Moratoriums, National Museum Australia, https://www.nma.gov.au/defining-moments/resources/vietnam-moratoriums

Federal Pacifist Council of Australia. The Peacemaker Newspaper, Vol. 1, No.1 (Sept.1939) – Vol. 33, Nos. 9-12 (Sept. – Dec. 1971). [Available National Library of Australia, Bib ID 1351962]

Langford, Sue. Appendix: The National Service Scheme 1964-1972. [Available Australia War Memorial] https://www.awm.gov.au/articles/encyclopedia/viet_app

Radical Tradition An Australasian History Page. Australian Draft Resistance and the Vietnam War – statements by Michael Matteson and Geoff Mullen. http://www.takver.com/history/matteson.htm

Hamel-Green, Michael, “The Resisters: a history of the anti-conscription movement 1964-1972” in King, P. (ed.), Australia’s Vietnam, Allen & Unwin, Sydney, 1983, pp.100-128.

Langley, Greg, A Decade of Dissent: Vietnam and the Conflict on the Australian Home Front, Allen & Unwin, Sydney, 1992

Draft Resisters Union, Downdraft, Melbourne, first edition 1971, second edition 1972.

The Draft Resisters Union, ANZAC Portal https://anzacportal.dva.gov.au/history/conflicts/australia-and-vietnam-war/events/conscription/moratoriums-and-opposition/draft

The Living Peace Museum, Opposition to the Vietnam War in Australia http://www.livingpeacemuseum.org.au/omeka/exhibits/show/vietnam-war-aus

The Living Peace Museum, Harry van Moorst: Opposition to the Vietnam War http://www.livingpeacemuseum.org.au/omeka/exhibits/show/hvm-vietnam

Notes and References

[1] An important source for the personal stories of non-compliers are from The Peacemaker, a newspaper published by the Federal Pacifist Council of Australia. The issues span Vol. 1. (Sep 1930) – V. 33, nos. 9 – 12 (Sep - Dec 1971). A full set is available at the National Library of Australia. The other important source is from the National Archives of Australia (NAA). Many conscientious non-compliers had an Australian Security Intelligence Organisational (ASIO) file which has been preserved at the NAA.

[2] According to The Sydney Morning Herald  21 October 2014 in an article by Judith Ireland titled Whitlam and Conscription  -an end to the lottery of death,  it was stated that the number of pending prosecutions of 350 draft resisters was dropped in December 1972. This appears to be too high a number. Her source is unknown. 

[3] The sample numbered 140 known non-compliers which have been identified, mainly from The Peacemaker newspaper.

[4] See for instance Australian Living Peace Museum, Harry van Moorst: Opposition to the Vietnam War, http://www.livingpeacemuseum.org.au/omeka/exhibits/show/hvm-vietnam date accessed 17 July 2019.

[5] The Peacemaker March 1970, p.3.

[6] The Peacemaker March 1967, p. 1, April 1968, p. 1.

[7] The Peacemaker January/ February 1969, p.5.

[8] The Peacemaker January/ February  1969, p.5, March/ April 1969, p.6, May/ June 1970, p.4, and Public Statement, Karl Armstrong 10-11-69 http://www.reasoninrevolt.net.au/objects/images/image_viewer.html?d0736,2,1,S, date accessed 25 June 2019.

See also NAA: A6619, 5447. Karl Keatch (aka Armstrong)  - Volume 1.1965-1972. https://recordsearch.naa.gov.au/SearchNRetrieve/Interface/ViewImage.aspx?B=12882878 date accessed 12 July 2019.

NAA: A6619, 5448. Karl Keatch (aka Armstrong) – Volume 2.1969-1970. https://recordsearch.naa.gov.au/SearchNRetrieve/Interface/ViewImage.aspx?B=30485026 date accessed 12 July 2019.

NAA: A6619, 5449. Karl Keatch (aka Armstrong) – Volume 3. 1970-1983. https://recordsearch.naa.gov.au/SearchNRetrieve/Interface/ViewImage.aspx?B=30485027 date accessed 12 July 2019.

NAA: A6619, 470. Karl Keatch (aka Armstrong). 1966-1972. https://recordsearch.naa.gov.au/SearchNRetrieve/Interface/ViewImage.aspx?B=30485028 date accessed 12 July 2019.

The NAA files are predominantly from ASIO. ASIO believed Karl was working in Albania in the early 1970s to avoid military call-up, Volume 3, p.35.

[9] The Peacemaker September/ October 1969, p.10.

[10] The Peacemaker May/ June 1968, p.4, July/ August 1968, p.1, November/ December 1968, p.1, November/ December 1968, p.1, January/ February 1969, p.2 and p.6, September/ October 1969, p.10, May/ June 1970, p.4, March/ April 1971,p.1, pp..3-5; Australian Draft Resistance and the Vietnam War – statements by Michael Mattson and Geoff Mullen, https://libcom.org/history/australian-draft-resistance-vietnam-war-statements-michael-matteson-geoff-mullen date accessed 25 June 2019; Interviews collected by film-makers Martha Ansara and Larry Zetlin in the course of making their documentary, Hell No! We Won’t Go, which will tell the stories of the men and women who opposed the war and conscription in Australia, https://honesthistory.net.au/wp/hell-no-we-wont-go-anti-conscription-project-goes-to-the-australian-war-memorial/ date accessed 25 June 2019

 See also, NAA: A6119, 3266. MULLEN Geoffrey Richard -Volume 1. 1968-1969. https://recordsearch.naa.gov.au/SearchNRetrieve/Interface/ViewImage.aspx?B=4269897 date accessed 12 July 2019.

NAA: A6119, 3267. MULLEN Geoffrey Richard-Volume 2. 1971-1972. https://recordsearch.naa.gov.au/SearchNRetrieve/Interface/ViewImage.aspx?B=4269898 date accessed 12 July 2019

[11] The Peacemaker, November/ December 1968, p.1, January/ February 1969, p.2, November/ December 1969, p.8, January/ February 1970, p.1, May/June 1970, p.4; Notes on John Francis Zarb: Prepared by Gordon Bryant, Federal Member for Wills, November 1968, http://www.reasoninrevolt.net.au/biogs/E000460b.htm date accessed 25 June 2019.

[12] The Peacemaker July/ August 1969, p.3.

[13] The government claimed that John’s early release was because of his parents poor health. NAA: A5872, 1206. Cabinet Minute  - Application of John Zarb for Release  -Submission 750[1 page]. 1969. https://recordsearch.naa.gov.au/SearchNRetrieve/Interface/ViewImage.aspx?B=3326660 date accessed 12 July 2019.

[14] The Peacemaker August/ September 1970, p.1.

[15] The Peacemaker August/ September 1970, p.1 and p.7, October/ November 1970, p.1 and p.6, May/ April 1971, p.3

[16] The Peacemaker July/ August 1969, p.4.

[17] The Peacemaker March/ April 1969, p.6, July/ August 1969, p.4, November/ December 1969, p.8, May/ June 1970, p.4.

[18] The Peacemaker March/ April 1970, p.7, and May/ June 1970, p.7.

[19] The Peacemaker January/ February 1969, p.5.

[20] The Peacemaker January/ February 1969, p. 5, July/ August 1969, p. 5, May/ June 1970, p. 4, October/ November 1970, p. 6, May/ June and July/ August 1971, p. 10.

[21] The Peacemaker March/ April 1969, p.7.

[22] The Peacemaker January/ February 1969, p. 6, March/ April 1969, pp. 6-7, November/ December 1969, p.8, and May/ June 1970, p. 7.

[23] The Peacemaker May/ June 1966, p.3.

[24] The Peacemaker May/ June 1966, p.3; William White (conscientious objector), https://wikivisually.com/wiki/William_White_(conscientious_objector) date accessed 25 June 2019. See also NAA: A6122, 1824. Associations Individual – Committee for the defence of Bill White, Bill White Conscientious Defence Committee – Volume 1, Copy of Statement by Mr White Sydney Teacher and Conscientious Objector. Authorised and roneoed on behalf of the Save Our Sons Movement, by Mrs A Pert, p.119. https://recordsearch.naa.gov.au/SearchNRetrieve/Interface/ViewImage.aspx?B=3008765 date accessed 12 July 2019.

[25] The Peacemaker April 1968, p.8, May/ June 1968, p. 4,  July/ August 1968, p.1, January/ February 1969, p. 6, September/ October 1969, p.1 and 10,  November/ December 1969, pp.1 and 7, May/ June 1970 p.4 and August/ September 1970, p.1.

[26] The Peacemaker October/ November 1970, p.6. and NAA: A5873, 671. Cabinet Minute – Brian James Ross – remission of sentence of imprisonment  -Without Submission, p.1. 17 September 1970. https://recordsearch.naa.gov.au/SearchNRetrieve/Interface/ViewImage.aspx?B=4037675 date accessed 12 July 2019.

[27] Australian Broadcasting Commission, 1970. Interview with Brian Ross Vietnam War Conscientious Objector. National Archives of Australia, https://digital.collections.slsa.sa.gov.au/nodes/view/4402 date accessed 25 June 2019.

[28] The Peacemaker May/ June 1968, p.6 and March/ April 1969, p.7.

[29] The Peacemaker May/ June 1968, p.6. See also NAA: M1369, 423. {Personal Papers of Prime Minister Fraser] Townsend file [brief for possible opposition censure motion concerning Simon Townsend, Captain Rule and Vietnam water torture case]. 1964-1968. https://recordsearch.naa.gov.au/SearchNRetrieve/Interface/ViewImage.aspx?B=3424174 date accessed 13 July 2019.

[30] The Peacemaker May/ June 1968, p.6, July/ August 1968, pp.3-4, September/ October 1968, p.1, January/ February 1969, p.6, March/ April 1969. P.7, November/ December1969, p. 8, and May/ June 1970, p.4.

[31] The Peacemaker October/ November 1970, p.1.

[32] The Peacemaker March/ April 1970, p.6,May/ June 1970, p.4, October/ November 1970, pp.1 and 6

[33] The Peacemaker November/ December 1968, p.1, March/ April 1969, p.6, November/ December 1969, pp. 1, 6, May/ June 1970, p.4 and 8, October/ November 1970, p.1..

[34] The Peacemaker July/ August 1968, p.1, January/ February 1969; Australian War Memorial, Mowbray Triplets Robert, David and Graham (Bert) interviewed for the documentary “Hell No We Won’t Go”, 17 July 2014.https://www.awm.gov.au/collection/C2122165 date accessed 25 June 2019.

[35] The Peacemaker September/ October 1968, p.1, January/ February 1969, p.7.

[36] The Peacemaker November/ December 1969, p.7

[37] The Peacemaker January/ February 1970, p.1, May/ June 1970, p.4. and October/ November 1970, p.7

[38] The National Service Act automatically exempted Ministers of Religion and theological students.

[39] The Peacemaker May/ June 1969, p.6.

[40] The Peacemaker January/ February 1969, p.5, May/ June 1969, p.6, July/ August 1969, p. 5, November/ December 1969, p.8. and May/ June 1970, p.4. See also NAA: A6119, 3455 Matteson, Michael Christopher, Volume 1. 1969-1972. https://recordsearch.naa.gov.au/SearchNRetrieve/Interface/ViewImage.aspx?B=8194663 date accessed 12 July 2019.

[41] The Peacemaker July 1970, p.1.

[42] The Peacemaker September/ October 1969, p.10.

[43] The Peacemaker May/ June 1969, p.5, November/ December 1969, p.1, September/ October 1969, p.10, November/ December 1969,  May/ June 1970, p. 4, p.8. and October/ November 1970, p.6; Michael Hamel-Green as a draft resister interviewed by Greg Swanborough for “the Sharp End’. https://www.awm.gov.au/collection/C1067702 date accessed 25 June 2019

[44] The Peacemaker November/ December 1968, p.8, November/December 1968, p.8, January/ February 1969, p.5, May/ June 1969, pp.1 and 6, May/ June 1970, p.4, August/ September 1970, p.7. and October/ November 1970, p.3; Australian Broadcasting Commission, 1970.